Socialismo panárabe (Bassismo sirio, iraquí, egipcio...)

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    Andalú M-L
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    Socialismo panárabe (Bassismo sirio, iraquí, egipcio...)

    Mensaje por Andalú M-L el Jue Ago 19, 2010 5:18 pm

    ¿Qué opinión os merece la ya casi desaparecida corriente del socialismo árabe o panarabista? Véase Gamal Abdel Nasser en Egipto, Gadafi en Libia, incluso Argelia en los años 70 en menor medida (mantenía relaciones muy cordiales con la RPD de Corea), Irak incluso (con matices) o Siria. Desde mi punto de vista, Siria es la república de Oriente Medio más reivindicable a día de hoy, donde los comunistas forman un papel importante en la vida política del país.

    Dimitri Kalashnikov
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    Re: Socialismo panárabe (Bassismo sirio, iraquí, egipcio...)

    Mensaje por Dimitri Kalashnikov el Jue Ago 19, 2010 6:10 pm

    esos son socialismos no estan muy bien constituidos , muchos de ellos llevan agregados los sectarismos religiosos , los nacionalismos mas retrogrados , y sistemas organisativos no muy bien definidos

    aunque se han dado casos historicos de sistemas parecidos al socialismos bien hechos en Africa.

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    Re: Socialismo panárabe (Bassismo sirio, iraquí, egipcio...)

    Mensaje por Disidente_del_Capitalismo el Jue Ago 19, 2010 11:34 pm

    Dimitri Kalashnikov escribió:esos son socialismos no estan muy bien constituidos , muchos de ellos llevan agregados los sectarismos religiosos , los nacionalismos mas retrogrados , y sistemas organisativos no muy bien definidos

    aunque se han dado casos historicos de sistemas parecidos al socialismos bien hechos en Africa.
    La verdad es que el nacionalismo del movimiento Ba'ath ("renacimiento" en árabe) es más bien un pan-arabismo, busca la unión de todos los árabes en su lucha contra el colonialismo y el imperialismo.
    Es difícil hablar de nacionalismos retrogrados, pues tienen este componente internacional, al menos en Siria y en el Egipto de Nasser.
    Y menos aún de sectarismo religioso, pues los movimientos como el ba'azismo y el nasserismo son movimientos laicos, una de las características que hace a Siria un país bastante estable políticamente es la tolerancia religiosa que es impuesta por el Estado Sirio y por ello el gran porcentaje de cristianos y shiies en Siria viven bastante en paz, a diferencia de otros países del Medio Oriente, tanto así que el Estado Sirio persigue duramente a los grupos fundamentalistas.
    Eso sí, su socialismo es una amalgama de estatismo, desarrollismo, planificación y algo de Estado de Bienestar, es un socialismo de distribución y no de producción y la ideología Ba'azista está llena de elementos nacionalistas, redistribucionistas y laicisismo, mezclando el idealismo y rechazando el materialismo por considerarlo que no va con el "espíritu de la nación árabe".

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    Re: Socialismo panárabe (Bassismo sirio, iraquí, egipcio...)

    Mensaje por Disidente_del_Capitalismo el Sáb Ago 21, 2010 6:29 am

    Algunos documentos del Movimiento Ba'azista y del Partido del Renacimiento Árabe Socialista de Siria (el Ba'ath sirio).

    The BASP's Constitution is the most important fundamental document issued by the Party . It directs the Party decision-making at different levels of leadership . It controls the mechanism that achieves the Party objectives .
    No article of the Constitution has been amended since it was approved by the Constituent Conference , held in Damascus on 4-6 April 1947 .
    The BASP's Constitution clearly identified the following terms : the Arab Nation , the Arab homeland , the Arab citizen , the Arab people authority over their land ,the freedom of the people , Citizenship ,in addition to the Party humanitarian perspective and its role in building a civilization .
    The BASP's Constitution also identified the Party's methodology, as a national (pan-Arab), socialist, popular and revolutionary . It designed the Party interna , external, economic, social, cultural and educational policies in a unified Arab State .
    The BASP specified the following :

    THE BAATH ARAB SOCIALIST PARTY NATIONAL LEADERSHIP
    THE CONSTITUTION OF THE BAATH ARAB SOCIALIST PARTY
    APPROVED BY THE FIRST CONGRESS
    OF THE PARTY IN 1947

    FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

    First Principle:
    The Arab Nation Unity and Liberty
    The Arabs are One Nation, which has its natural right to live under One State and to be free in running its potentials. Therefore, the Baath Arab Socialist Party considers that:
    1- The Arab Homeland is an indivisible political and economic entity, and that no Arab country can make up for the conditions of its existence away from the other Arab countries.
    2- The Arab Nation is one educational entity. All differences existing among its natives are casual and fake. They can be removed by the awakening of the Arab conscience.
    3- The Arab Homeland belongs to the Arabs. They alone have the right to administer its affairs, wealth and the running of its potentials.

    Second Principle:
    The Arab Nation Character

    The Arab Nation is distinguished by characteristics that are manifest in its consecutive revivals. It is stamped with the fertility of vivacity and creativity, the capability to renewal and resurrection which always conforms with the growth of the individual's freedom and the extent of harmony between his development and the Pan-Arab National interest. Therefore, the Baath Arab Socialist Party considers that:
    1- The freedom of Speech, Assembly, Belief and Art are holy and no authority can undermine them.
    2- After giving the citizens equal opportunities, their value can be determined according to the work they perform for the progress of the Arab Nation and its prosperity, irrespective of any other consideration.

    Third Principle:
    The Arab Nation Mission

    The Arab Nation has an eternal mission that appears in renovative forms and integrated in all stages of history. It aims at renewing human values, motivating human advancement and developing the harmony and cooperation among nations. Therefore, the Baath Arab Socialist Party considers that:
    1- Colonialism and anything relevant to it is a criminal act that the Arab combating by all possible means. The Arabs, within their material and moral capabilities, seek to help all peoples who struggle for their freedom.
    2- Humanity is a whole solidified in its interest and commonly linked by its values and civilization. Therefore, the Arabs give the world civilization and take from it. They extend a brotherly hand to all other nations and cooperate with them for establishing just systems, which safeguard, for all peoples, peace, prosperity and sublimation in spirit and temper.

    GENERAL PRINCIPLES
    Art. 1:
    The Baath Arab Socialist Party is an Arab comprehensive Party to which branches are to be established in all Arab countries.
    It deals with the regional policy within the Pan-Arab higher interest.
    Art. 2:
    The General Headquarters of the Party, for the time being, is Damascus. It can be transferred to any other Arab city if the Pan-Arab National Interest necessitates such transference.
    Art. 3:
    The Baath Arab Socialist Party is a Pan-Arab National Party , which believes that Nationalism is a living immortal fact and that the conscious Pan-Arab National feeling, which closely attaches the individual with his Nation, is a sacred feeling, full of creative power, sacrifice-invoking, spurring the sense of responsibility and is practically and effectively directing the individual's humanism.
    The Pan-Arab National Idea, which the Party calls for, is the will of the Arab people to liberate and unite themselves. They should be given a chance for the fulfillment of the Arab identity in history and to cooperate with all nations in such a way that safeguards the Humanity correct path towards good and prosperity.
    Art. 4:
    The Baath Arab Socialist Party (BASP) believes that Socialism is a necessity that emanates from the core of Arab Nationalism because it is the most ideal system which allows the Arab People to materialize their potentials and the maturing of their genius in the most perfect manner. Thus, the ( BASP) safeguards for the Arab Nation continuous growth of its material and moral production along with close brotherhood among its individuals.
    Art. 5:
    The (BASP) is a people's Party which believes that sovereignty is the people's, and they alone are the source of every authority or leadership, and that the value of the state comes from its stemming from the will of the masses. The sacredness of the state is dependent on the masses volition in choosing it. Therefore, the Party, in performing its mission, depends on the people and seeks to contact with them closely and works for lifting their rational, moral, economic and hygienic standards in order to allow them sense their character and exercise their rights in individual and national life.
    Art. 6:
    The (BASP) is revolutionary and believes that its main objectives in the resurrection of Pan-Arab Nationalism and the establishment of Socialism can not be fulfilled but through the road of revolution and struggle; and that dependence on slow development and contentment with superficial, partial reform menace these objectives with failure and loss. Therefore, the party decides:
    a - To struggle against foreign colonialism in order to liberate the entire Arab Homeland.
    b - To struggle for establishing solidarity among all Arabs within One Independent State.
    c - To revolt against the corrupt reality in all intellectual, economic, social and political aspects of life.
    Art. 7:
    The Arab Homeland is the land inhabited by the Arab Nation, extending from the Torus Mountains and those of Bishtekwih, Basra Gulf, the Arab Sea, Ethiopia Mountains, the Greater Sahara, the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
    Art. 8:
    The Arabic language is the official language of the State and it is the acknowledged language of citizens in writing and learning.
    Art. 9:
    The flag of the Arab State is that of the Greater Arab Revolution which erupted in 1916 for the liberation and unification of the Arab Nation.
    Atr. 10:
    The Arab person is the one who speaks Arabic and lives on the Arab territory, or aspires to do so, and believes in his affiliation to the Arab Nation.
    Art. 11:
    Any one who calls for or joins a racist block against the Arabs and any one who immigrates to the homeland for a colonialist end shall be evacuated.
    Art. 12:
    The Arab woman enjoys the full rights of citizenship. The Party struggles for elevating woman's standard until she becomes worthy to enjoy these rights.
    Art. 13:
    The fulfillment of equality in opportunities in education and economic life so that all citizens can show, in all aspects of human activity, their capabilities in their true shape and within the maximum limits.

    The Internal Policy of the Party
    Art. 14:
    The system in the Arab State is parliamentary and constitutional. The Executive Authority is responsible before the Legislative Authority, which is directly elected by the people.
    Art. 15:
    The Pan-Arab National link is the only link that exists in the Arab State and assures harmony among the citizens and their fusion in one crucible of one Nation and combats all kinds of denominational, sectarian, tribal, ethnic and regional fanaticism.
    Art. 16:
    The System of the one Arab State is decentralized.
    Art. 17:
    The Party works on the dissemination of the people's spirit (the Rule of the People) and rendering it a living fact in the individual life. It seeks to put a State Constitution that assures to the Arab citizens' absolute equality before the law and the voluntary expression of their freedom and the choice of their representatives honestly and thus prepares for them a free life within the law.
    Art. 18:
    With full volition, a unified constitution for the Arab State should be compatible with the spirit of modern times and in the light of the Arab Nation's past experiences.
    Art. 19:
    The Judiciary Authority is protected and independent from any other authority. It enjoys absolute immunity.
    Art. 20:
    All rights of citizens shall be given to any citizen who lived in the Arab land and paid sincerity to the Arab Homeland and separated himself from any racist blocking.
    Art. 21:
    Military service is compulsory in the Arab Homeland.
    The Foreign Policy of the (BASP)
    Art. 22:
    The foreign policy of the Arab State shall derive from the Arab National Interest and the Eternal Arab Mission which aims at the contribution, with the other nations, to the creation of a harmonious, free and safe world which proceeds towards permanent progress.
    Art. 23:
    The Arabs should struggle, with all their power, to raze the pillars of colonialism, occupation and every foreign political and economical influence in their countries.
    Art. 24:
    Since the Arab People are the source of every power, therefore, all government treaties and instruments, which breach the integral policy of the Arabs, shall be null.
    Art. 25:
    The foreign Arab policy shall aim at giving a correct picture about the Arab's will to live free and about their true wish to see all nations enjoy freedom.
    The Economic Policy of the (BASP)
    Art. 26:
    The (BASP) is Socialist and believes that the economic wealth at home is the Nation's property.
    Art. 27:
    The existing distribution of wealths in the Arab Homeland is unjust and, hence, they must be reconsidered and distributed rightly among the citizens.
    Art. 28:
    All citizens are equal in human value and hence the Party forbids any exploitation of others' efforts.
    Art. 29:
    The establishments of public interest, huge natural resources, and means of transportation shall be directly administered by the State. All companies and foreign concessions shall be cancelled.
    Art. 30:
    The agricultural ownership shall be determined according to the possessor's capability for full utilization without exploiting other's efforts, under the supervision of the state and in accordance with its general economic program.
    Art. 31:
    The petty industrial ownership shall be determined as to what befits the economic standard of the rest of citizens in the State.
    Art 32:
    The workers shall take part in managing the factories and they will be given, away from their wages, a share of profits to be determined by the State.
    Art 33:
    Ownership of built real estates is free to all citizens, but they are not allowed to rent or utilize them at the expense of others.
    The State shall guarantee minimum limit of real estate ownership for all citizens.
    Art. 34:
    Possession and inheritance are two natural and protected rights within the boundaries of National Interest.
    Art 35:
    Usury among citizens shall be cancelled. One governmental bank shall be established to issue the currency, which is guaranteed by the National Income. It shall finance the necessary agricultural and industrial projects.
    Art. 36:
    The State shall directly supervise the internal and external trade in order to cancel the exploitation between the producer and the consumer. They will be protected together with the national production from the competition of foreign production and a balance between exports and imports shall be assured.
    Art 37:
    A comprehensive program shall be put in the light of the latest experiences and economic theories for the industrialization of the Arab Homeland, development of the National production, opening frontiers to it and directing the industrial economy in every country.
    The Social Policy of the Party
    Art 38 - The Family, Race and Marriage:
    Item One: The Family is the basic cell of the Nation and the Government has to protect, develop and nourish it.
    Item Tow: The race is firstly the trust of the Family and secondly the State's. Both have to work on its multiplication and looking after its health and upbringing.
    Item Three: Marriage is a National duty and the State has to encourage, facilitate and control it.

    Art 39- The Health of the Society?
    The State has to establish, at its own expense, establishments of preventive medicine, sanatoria and hospitals which meet the needs of all citizens perfectly and guarantee free medication to them.

    Art 40- Work:
    Item One: Work is obligatory for the able. The State has to ensure an intellectual or manual work for every citizen.
    Item Tow: The work must guarantee to the worker an appropriate standard of living, at least.
    Item Three: The State shall assure the living of all those disabled from work.
    Item Four: Promulgation of a fair legislation for workers that determines the daily working hours, allowing for a paid weekend and annual leave, protects their rights and assures the social insurance in old age and partial or full recompense for harm during work.
    Item Five: Formation of Free Unions for workers and peasants and encouraging them to become a means fit for defending their rights, raising their levels, adopting their skills, increasing offered opportunities and the creation of the spirit of solidarity among them.
    Item six: The formation of Special Work Courts in which the workers and Peasants Unions are represented. These courts shall settle the disputes occurring between them and the managers of factories and representatives of the State.

    Art 41-The Culture of the Society:
    Item One: The party shall work on establishing a general, national, Arab, free, progressive, comprehensive and profound culture that has human aims. This culture will be generalized among all classes of the people.
    Item Tow: The State is responsible for the maintenance of the freedom of speech, publication, assembly, protest and press, within the limits of the supreme Arab national interest, and offering all means and capabilities that fulfill this freedom.
    Item Three: The Intellectual Work is one of the holiest works, and the State has to protect and encourage the intellectuals and the scientists.
    Item Four: Giving way - within the boundaries of the Arab National Conception- for the establishment of clubs, societies, parties, youth organizations, establishments of tourism and the utilization of cinema, broadcasting, television and all means of moden civilization on the generalization of the National Education and entertainment of the people.

    Art. 42- The elimination of class discrimination and distinction:
    Class discrimination is the outcome of a corrupt social situation. Therefore, the Party will always struggle for the oppressed toiling classes of the society until such discrimination and distinction disappear and all citizens can restore completely their human value and can be given a life under a social fair system where no citizen has any priority over another, except of his intellectual and dexterous capacity.

    Art. 43- Bedouin Communities:
    Bedouin life is a primitive social status that undermines the national production and renders a large portion of the nation paralyzed. It is a factor that precludes the development and progress of the nation. The party is striving to modernize Bedouin life and give Bedouins lands together with the cancellation of the tribal system and the enforcement of the State's laws on them.

    The Party's policy in Education and Pedagogy
    The Party's policy in Pedagogy aims at the creation of new Arab generation that believes in the unity of the Arab nation, the immortality of its mission that adopts scientific thought and free from superstitions, reactionary traditions and infused with the optimism spirit, struggle and solidarity with its nationals for the fulfillment of the comprehensive Arab Revolution and progress of humanity. Therefore, the Party decides:
    Art. 44:
    To stamp all the intellectual, economic, political, constructional and technical phenomena of life with pan-Arab national character that can restore the glorious history of the nation and spur it to look for a more glorious and ideal future.
    Art. 45:
    Education is one of the State's duties by itself. Therefore, all foreign and private educational establishments shall be cancelled.
    Art. 46:
    Education, in all stages, is provided gratis to all citizen . It is obligatory in the elementary and secondary stages.
    Art. 47:
    Vocational schools, equipped with the latest means, shall be established. Study in them is gratis.
    Art. 48:
    Arab nationals shall carry out teaching and all things related to . The higher education shall be exempted from this.

    Amendment of the Constitution
    Separate Article:
    The Fundamental and General Principles are not subject to amendment.
    The executive committee or quarter of the members of the council or one tenth of the members of the General Body can amend the other articles of the Constitution with the approval of two thirds of the party Council members following a proposal submitted.

    Constitución del Ba'ath Sirio
    Approche comparative des discours de Michel Aflaq et de Saddam Hussein (Es una Tesis sobre el Ba'azismo, muy buena, pero en francés)
    Página dedicada a la Obra de Michel Aflaq (principalmente en árabe, pero también en francés e inglés)
    Página dedicada a Hafez y Bashar Al-Assad (en inglés)

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    Re: Socialismo panárabe (Bassismo sirio, iraquí, egipcio...)

    Mensaje por Tovaritx el Lun Ene 10, 2011 3:02 pm

    Una pregunta, que a lo mejor alguien sabe contestarla aquí. ¿Qué diferencias hay dentro del socialismo árabe entre el baathismo y el nasserismo? (creo que las diferencias son pocas pero las hay, Nasser no era del Partido Baath).

    Por otra parte cómo hablaríamos de la Argelia en los tiempos de Ben Bella y Huari Bumedian; ¿como un país de socialismo real marxista (como los de Europa Oriental) o como uno de socialismo árabe (como Egipto, Siria, Libia e Irak)?

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    Re: Socialismo panárabe (Bassismo sirio, iraquí, egipcio...)

    Mensaje por Disidente_del_Capitalismo el Dom Ene 23, 2011 12:17 am

    Acá hay un artículo interesante sobre Siria e Irak y el movimiento Ba'azista: http://www.libreria-mundoarabe.com/Boletines/n%BA41%20Sep.06/SiriaIraq.html

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    Re: Socialismo panárabe (Bassismo sirio, iraquí, egipcio...)

    Mensaje por Disidente_del_Capitalismo el Dom Ene 23, 2011 12:33 am

    Estos artículos explican políticamente a Egipto y el surgimiento de Nasser:
    -Egipto: de Faruq a Nasser (I)
    -Egipto: de Faruq a Nasser (II)

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    Re: Socialismo panárabe (Bassismo sirio, iraquí, egipcio...)

    Mensaje por Tovaritx el Lun Ene 24, 2011 3:12 am

    D_d_C: ¿Tienes una respuesta para la pregunta anterior? Es que te veo bastante puesto en el tema. Para mi las diferencias no son nítidas, ya que ambos son socialistas árabes, panarabistas y laicos.

    Otra cosa ¿qué opinión tienes de Sadam Husein?

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    Re: Socialismo panárabe (Bassismo sirio, iraquí, egipcio...)

    Mensaje por Disidente_del_Capitalismo el Lun Ene 24, 2011 9:35 pm

    No tengo una respuesta, pues todavía no me he interiorizado tanto con el tema, pero es cierto que me interesa bastante, pues tanto el nasserismo como el ba'azismo, si bien no tienen la influencia que tenían antes en el mundo árabe, aun tienen muchos seguidores, y eso se puede ver en Túnez donde ambos movimientos son parte de la Izquierda.
    Tengo un libro de Nasser titulado "Filosofía de la Revolución", pero no lo he leído, además del Ba'az me gustaría leer a Michel Aflaq, pero la mayoría de los textos están en árabe, y lo poco que hay en otras lenguas se reduce a un montón de citas. Por eso no podría contestar esa pregunta. De lo que he leído, sólo puedo decir que sí hay diferencias, al menos eso dicen lo que han comentado la relación entre la Siria gobernada por el Partido Ba'az Árabe Socialista y el Egipto de Nasser.
    Sobre Sadam Husein tengo una muy mala opinión, sólo le destacaría el hecho que mantuvo a Irak lejos de las guerras religiosas entre las diversas comunidades: Musulmanes Shi'ies y Suníes, Cristianos de las diversas denominaciones, Mandeos, judíos y otros, que en la actualidad se pasan matando entre ellos. Pero nada más.

      Fecha y hora actual: Vie Oct 31, 2014 7:57 pm